Instructions on disinfection (fumigation) grain preparations based on aluminum phosphide

Manual developed by the Border State Inspection for 
Plant Quarantine in Odessa Oblast, Ukrainian Research Institute of Maritime Medicine, 
employees of the Central Sanitary and Epidemiological Service of Ukraine Ministry of Health 
under the law of Ukraine "On Plant Quarantine", "On Transport", "On 
Providing sanitary and epidemiological welfare " based on 
many years of experience in decontamination grains, legumes and

agricultural products on ships of sea and river fleets, materials experimental work on processing these goods the phosphine preparation.

Authors: Hrytsiuk VI, Fedorenko LP, k.m.n.Bslobroa III., Holub'yatnykov MI, Ph.D. V. Gritsenko, PhD Institutions ID, Smith VI

Instruction covers all service ports and ships of sea and river fleet Ukraine and is designed for professionals fumigation units of the State Inspectorate for Plant Quarantine performing disinfection on ships and in ports of sea and river fleet, port employees sanepidstantsiy water transport Ukraine, Dockers and crew ships.


Instruction regulates the procedure, rules and safety work of disinfection (fumigation) grains, legumes, their processed products, nuts, cocoa beans, peanuts, soybeans, seeds, dried fruits and vegetables, sugar, tobacco and other agricultural products the phosphine preparation in the holds of sea and river vessels of domestic and foreign fleets.

Fumigation of grain cargoes in flight preparations based on hydrogen phosphide introduced into the operation of the fleet due to the fact that traditional methods of disinfection with methyl bromide output vessels were operating dangerous to life and health, ineffective and led to lengthy downtime vehicles.

In search of a way out of this situation proposed a method of fumigation of grain in flight using products manufactured on the basis of hydrogen phosphide (phosphine) produced in easy to apply solid powder form and in the form pyhulok, beads and so on.

Phosphine - one of fumigants that virtually no sorbed grains, legumes and other agricultural products have a warning odor and does not accumulate in the human body; because of the high rozsiyuvanosti not kept in open spaces, hazardous concentrations are only in isolated volumes.

Experts fumigation units, port sanepidstantsiy (SES), dockers ports, port services workers, firms and other persons involved in the work associated with the fumigation and degassing of grain in the holds of ships shall study in detail a valid Temporary Instruction receive adequate training and instruction a blog entry. Those who did not pass the instruction of safe handling of hydrogen phosphide preparations, the work is not allowed.

The actual instruction defines techniques and technology disinfection grain cereals and agricultural goods in the holds of ships and barges using drugs on the phosphine, the Register of pesticides approved for use in Ukraine.These fumigants come in the form pyhulok and granules, for example, produced by "Dehesh" (Germany), equally as other .firm and are used for disinfection of contaminated insects and mites grain crops of food, feed and seed setting.

.All Of fumigation on ships and in ports are held with uzhozhdennyu

State Sanitary and Epidemiological Service of Ukraine Ministry of Health waterway.

All works of disinfecting the phosphine preparation and degassing 
it should be conducted in compliance with the safety rules pozharo-explosive 
safety and promsanitariyi posted in real Temporary Instruction. '

Employees fumigation unit, dockers, crew members and other persons performing work in areas of possible contact with phosphine should have fixed them PPE (313) and personal respiratory protection (ZIZOP).

Control of security operations and maintenance and ZIZOP 313 workers make fumigation fumigation manager assigned to work as crew members on ships in ports and dock - the organizers of handling and marine works.

D. GENERAL KNOWLEDGE BASED ON fumigation hydrogen phosphide (phosphine)

1.1. Disinfection in the holds of sea and river sa \ den 
used drugs based on phosphine, produced by foreign firms under 
the names "Fostoksyn", "Infants-EX-B", "Fumitoksyn", "Foshaz", "Fosfamin", 
"Mayitoksyn" " Helyofos "," Tsyolfos "," Fostek "and others.

1.2. The basis of these drugs with aluminum or magnesium phosphide that by engaging 
in a chemical reaction with atmospheric moisture or grain, produce hydrogen phosphide gas:

A1 + ZHO = Al (OH) + RN or Mg 3 p2 + 6H 2 0 = ZMg (OH) 2 + 2RN, providing lethal out for pests (grain weevils, grain grinder, flour hruschaka, mucoids, mites and al.).

... 1.3. Keeping in pyhulkah or granules of active ingredient (phosphine) in the form of aluminum or magnesium phosphide for different kinds of drug ranges from 55.0 to 57.0% (by weight). Others take pyhulok fillers such as ammonium carbamate, kaolin, food paraffin and other inert ingredients. Purpose fillers - slow speed selection phosphine with drugs in the first hours after laying them in grain or agricultural products; of carbon dioxide - increases fire safety transportation of goods; formation of ammonia, which has a sharp odor warning - preceding the start of reaction of phosphine and therefore serves as a warning signal about the need to take precautions. After completion of the chemical reaction (2-6 days) within the shell of drugs is non-toxic powder aluminum or magnesium hydroxide


1.4. Preparations for the phosphine produced in the following form.

- "Fostoksyn" - in the form pyhulok from aluminum phosphide, packed in paper tape ;.

- "Deti-EX-B" - in the form of packets with thick paper, inside which is a powder of aluminum phosphide basis. Paper bags are placed in a cloth tape cassette (in the form of ammunition);


- "Fumitoksyn" - is a pyhulky phosphide-based aluminum;

- "Foshaz" - in the form of powder inside pyhulok and bags of heavy paper. The basis of this drug is also aluminum phosphide;

- "Mahtoksyn" - in the form of tapes of several connected containers pyhulok. The basis of this drug is magnesium phosphide;

- "Helyofos" - comes in the form pyhulok containing aluminum phosphide packed in metal cylinders.

1.5. Tags Used in preventive and fumigation 
certificates terms "fumizlyvy", "gas belts", "gas blankets with bags" and others. is 
accepted practice fumigation company names layout methods 
phosphine drugs in their taryrovtsi, transporting and laying in corn.

2. DESCRIPTION phosphine

2.1. Phosphine (hydrogen phosphide) is a colorless gas, which 
is injected into the gas-signaling device that resembles the smell of rotting fish, garlic or 
industrial karbytu. Chemical formula - RN } . The phosphine is highly rozsiyuvanist and 
poorly maintained on the work surface and open spaces holds, 
warehouses, wagons, containers phosphine much koroduye copper products, so you should 
avoid exposure to phosphine devices with copper parts.

2.2. At high concentrations of phosphine vybuhonebezpechen. The lower 
flammability limit concentration (YKMZ) - 1.79 - 1.89% by volume or 17 900-18 900 
ppm (25.060- 26 460 mg / m ^). However, in practice, applied low consumption rate - 
0.8 g / m * drug (570 ppm or 798 mg / m *) - virtually eliminates the formation of 
phosphine concentrations approaching NKMZ.

2.3. The phosphine is highly toxic. It belongs to the chemical class 1 risk (extremely dangerous). Alarm

concentration (COD) phosphine, adopted in Ukraine for air working area, is 
0.1 mg / m "in the United States, Britain, Bulgaria and other countries - 0.1 ppm (0.14 mg / m 1 ) and secure 
with exposed for 15 minutes without tools respiratory protection, emergency 
concentration - 8TE - is 0.6 ppm (0.8 mg / m). COD for air 
and air vehicles premises - 0.01 mg / g. The smell of phosphine begins

felt at concentrations - 0.03 mg / m '.

2.4. The phosphine weak grain and grain products sorbustsya so easily degassed.

2.5. At recommended doses for disinfection does not change the quality of grain, legumes and other agricultural goods.


7 using the method pyhulok location on the surface of the grain after decomposition zalyshastsya gray-white powder harmless.

3.5. The intensity of decomposition and release of phosphine preparations hydrogen phosphide is mainly determined by two factors: the ambient temperature and relative humidity, with an increase which it accelerates, while reducing - slows.

3.6. The intensity of the decomposition of magnesium phosphide drugs is higher than on the basis of aluminum phosphide. The dynamics of decomposition of the drug based on aluminum phosphide is shown in Fig. 1.


3.1. As shown above, the disinfection of grain and 
agricultural goods phosphine used drugs 
manufactured in Germany, Brazil, China and other countries in industrial names 
"Fostoksyn", "Deti-EX-B", "Fumitoksyn", "Foshaz", "Fosfamin" "Mahtoksyn", 
"Helyofos" and others. They are produced in the form of round pyhulok in wet-hazopronyklyh 
sleeves - fumizlyvah or as a powder in packets that are arranged in a cassette 
tape or wet-blankets hazopronykloho material.

3.2. Required dosage for the holds are obtained by selection of the appropriate number of standard packages introduced after loading in grains, legumes and other agricultural goods of the hold. >

3.3. Phosphine drugs stored in tightly closed containers. After making a grain loads when interacting with moist air products at temperatures above 5 ° C is decomposed aluminum phosphide, and at temperatures above 0 ° C decomposes into gaseous magnesium phosphide hydrogen phosphide (phosphine) and aluminum hydroxide powder (or magnesium) .

3.4. Thus with each pyhulky weight 3 grams, released through the walls of the package 1 gram of phosphine gas that having a high penetration, filling the intergranular space hold, and non-toxic aluminum hydroxide powder (magnesium) zalyshastsya within the package. In the case of drug use 


Small decomposition dynamics fosfinnyh drugs at different values

temperature (I) and relative humidity (f). For visiH- number of phosphine , which released (in% of maximum), the axis Y - time in hours;

3.7. The analysis shows that the initial reaction (1-2 hours), despite the direct interaction of drugs with moist air and products, the number of hydrogen phosphide, which was isolated, small (no more than 2% of the incorporated drugs) and therefore it can not create hazardous concentrations near the holds and hatches in the process of closing that goes 20-45 minutes depending on the number of holds. This is confirmed by field measurements of the concentration of phosphine in nadzernovomu space obtained under experimental traffic fumigation of grain and agricultural products.

4. Technology disinfection GRAINS, grain products and agricultural goods on ships and barges

4.1. Organization and prepare to fumigant

4.1.1. The work of disinfecting grain in the holds of ships and barges from pests and preventive purposes only perform special fumigation units of the State Inspectorate for Plant Quarantine of Ukraine legally responsible for the quality of work performed, compliance with safety, health store and the environment.

4.1.2. Equipment needed for fumigation work:


- A metal tube with sections that wound, to enter pyhulok or granules of phosphine to the desired depth of cargo;

- Gas analyzer (aspirator) for pumping gas mixture through a breathalyzer;

- Indicator tube company "Draeger" for determining phosphine in both small and large concentrations;


- Rubber hose-vydovzhuvach (5 mm in diameter and 5.10 m in length) for measuring the concentration of phosphine from the cargo deck;

- Adhesive tape, sealed weight, foam, plastic sheeting to seal fumes fumigation gas;

- Fumіzlivi thermometer i psychrometer;

- 'Panoramic gas masks for respiratory protection;

- Gas filters to gas masks to protect against phosphine.

4.1.3. Fumigation of cargo in the holds of ships made only after the load and includes the following technological stages:

- Check the suitability and training ship and crew to fumigation in transit passage;

- Fumigant in grain after its load;

- Fumigation in transit passage;

- Degassing fumigation of cargo by the crew after fumigation;

monitor the effectiveness of decontamination specialists of the State Inspectorate for fumzahinu

plant quarantine at the port of discharge (at ports of Ukraine).

4.1.4. Boats, sea and river fleets, which provides for 
disinfection of cargo the phosphine preparation, must 
meet the following requirements, which are monitored by experts fumzanoniv:

- Have a mechanical system of opening and closing bilge covers;

- To provide reliable sealing hatches and hatch, and be able to conduct additional sealing;

- Mat forced ventilation of residential, business and office space;

- Ventilation hatches shall not pass through work, office and residential space vehicles;

- Have the means and gazoanaliza hazozahystu and the means of first 
medical aid.

4.1.5. The period of the carriage of cargo fumigation crew must be 
carried away from the cabins adjacent to the cargo hold. Crew members 
must know the chemical and toxic properties of phosphine poisoning symptoms, to be able 
to use tools and gazoanaliza hazozahystu from exposure otrutohimikate.

4.1.6. Disinfection of grain cargo in the holds of ships in the path of the process is conducted in the following modes (Table. 1):

Table 1


Mode fumіgatsії



° C

Preparation consumption rate, p / m

Ezhspozytsiya, hours (days)




120 (5)




96 (4)




73 (3)


Above 20


72 (3)

4.1.7. The company that ahentus, informs the fumzahin State Inspection for 
Plant Quarantine of the estimated time of arrival and loading vehicles with 
the definition of the country to which exported grain, and the number of tons of cargo.

4.1.8. If you change the optimal conditions fumigation (1 grain - less than 5 ° C, 
humidity of air pollution in the hold - at least 15% and a transition time - 
less than 5 days) drug can completely decompose in each of these reasons that 
endangers people poisoning and pollution Environmental unloading grain.

4.1.9. Experts fumigation squad start for disinfection

goods on the basis of agreements or company-customer applications, quarantine order

inspector and after uzhozhdennya of the port of SES.

4.1.10. Fumigant as a stage for disinfection cargo

vessel requires more dedicated berth and can be done in any place

load grain and agricultural products and in any time of the day with respect

ordinary safety requirements during fumigation of cargo.

4.1.11. Prior to fumigation vessels (laying drugs) head

fumigation with the captain or chief says his assistant for measuring

testimony of the vessel and the cargo plan (karhoplan) data necessary for

disinfection: cubic holds (in m), the number of loaded grain (in tonnes)

tightness of ventilation systems, manholes, manhole, bilge hatches and covers. Then

fumzahonu specialist with team representatives met with

Structural features of the ship.

4.1.12. Based on the above data and vyhodyachiyi of construction

characteristics of the vessel, the physicochemical properties of fumigant, temperature and

nature of the goods, the humidity, the number of holds and tanks, biology of pests,

flight duration and other factors determined to conditions and technology

an effective disinfection cargo. At the same time determined by the extent

security crew that indicated in the "Official

predfumihatsiynomu message "and vruchayetsya under the master's signature (Annex 1)

and the "Act on the suitability of the holds of the vessel to fumigation" (Annex 2).

'4.1.13. Under the chosen technology specialist decontamination fumzahonu

determine the costs of each hold preparation containing phosphine, and is the scheme

the injection of cargo or its distribution over the surface of the cargo, which

consists of "Arrangement in disinfecting fumigant goods"

(Appendix 3) and is issued under the signature of the master.

4.1.14. Representative fumigation squad presents the master "Measures of 
safety in flight, with drainage and its unloading cargo "(Annex 4).

4.1.15. Before starting a fumigant holds carefully conduct 
seal all joints of the holds of channels (ventilation systems, lazovi hatches, 
caps tambuchynah et al.), and if necessary, carry them further 
sealing tape, masking tape, sealant, foam,

4.1.16. Responsible for fumigation before the fumigant 
introduces in detail the ship's captain or senior assistant with all the measures that will be carried on board. It introduces the captain of the equipment and personal

General Security, presenting the master at painting package of relevant documents,

including safety guidelines fumigation and degassing disinfected cargo

fire safety, personal protection measures and symptoms of poisoning

first aid (Annex 5). Pass under the master's signature product and gazoanaliza

hazozahystu as "list means gazoanaliza and hazozahystu" (Annex 6):

a) two protyhazni panoramic mask; , •

b) four protyhaznyh filters;

c) two hand-held gas analyzer (suction);

d) 30 breathalyzer to determine safe concentrations of phosphine 
(0.01 -0.30 ppm - 10 pcs., 0.1 -4.0 ppm - 20 pcs.).

This means gazoanaliza be accompanied by relevant international standards or certificates Standard Ukraine, allowing the use of these devices in the country.

4.1.17. Specialist fumigation unit, responsible for the work of the fumigation of cargo should ensure that the crew knows phosphine poisoning symptoms, can use with gas appliances, personal respiratory protection may apply first aid for poisoning phosphine, and that the vessel is appropriate "List of medicines, medical instruments and equipment for medical care lry phosphine poisoning" (Appendix 7).

4.1.18. After all preparatory operations specialist fumzahonu checks execution of all works and is "Act of Fitness for the aeration" (Appendix 8).

4.2. Technology disinfection goods at the port of loading

4.2.1. After loading the vessel and preparatory works 
proceed directly to the administration of drugs to the phosphine (pyhulky) in 
cargo holds located in the vessel.

4.2.2. For the period of administration of drugs phosphine holds in windows and doors add-in vehicles must be zadrayeni and ventilation superstructure must be enabled.

4.2.3. Crew members not related to the work of fumigation, should be removed from the cargo deck.

4.2 4. Upon completion of all preparatory work specialist responsible

fumigation squad and representative crew is finally Readiness vehicles to fumigation.

designated space vehicles that are subject to control for the presence of phosphine during the voyage and unloading of cargo fumigation; checks readiness of fumigation equipment and protective;

- Defines the responsibilities of each skill in the art fumigation;

- Before the fumigation crew briefing held Ukrainian vessel (not less than two the person appointed captain) safety measures and provide first aid with a list of the journal on labor protection.

After these events fumigation squad begin decontamination cargo.

4.2.5. Under optimal conditions disinfecting fumigant is introduced into the 
grain mass metal probe-stacker and a length of 1.5 m with an internal 
diameter of thirty mm, which can nahvynchuvatysya his other sections to the required 
length. Probe-Stacker is entered at the maximum depth of this 
calculation to pull the probe and drop him pyhulok of phosphine 
could provide even distribution of fumigant concentrations across the 
adjoining grain mass.

4.2.6. Where fumigation is carried out using fumizlyviv, 
"gas belts" or "gas bags of blankets" to be shared as equally 
as grain weight, strong cord fixed to stakes fixed in the grain, thus 
providing easy identification and removal of their decay products fumigants or 
their residues of cargo during decontamination.

4.2.7. With this technology must consist above specified "Arrangement disinfecting fumigant at goods" (Appendix 3) and transmitted to the master.

4.2.8. Technology using fumizlyviv can also be used to fumigate zatarennoy and bulk cargo, timber, empty tanks, holds and others. Fumizlyvy in this case are divided into cargo and containers in such a way that they can be easily found and removed during decontamination.

4.2.9. In the practice of disinfection of goods may use 
the combined method of fumigation - fumigant probe input and distribution fumizlyviv.

4.2.10. Time fumigant should not exceed 1.5 - 4.0 hours, depending on the volume of the holds of the ship. Then the vessel shall leave the port of loading for 2 hours.

4.2.11. In case of interruption phase fumigant for meteorological reasons (rain, snow, heavy fog, etc.). - When the distribution of drugs in the holds of phosphine postponed indefinitely - following

work on putting them in the thick of the goods or their distribution over the surface of the cargo should

be made subject to the control of air cargo working area on deck and in

holds with the use of 313 and 3130P in the "nakedness" (gas mask etc. or

lying nearby).

4.2.12. After the administration of drugs phosphine in the cargo holds lid closed and secured, is zadrayka freight dwellings -obzhymayutsya doors and hatches, and if necessary they carried out additional sealing.

4.2.13. Following closing, sealing fasteners and holds on them and on the hatches manhole adhesive warning signs in two languages ​​"Danger Poison! Loaded aluminum phosphide fumigation hold (phosphine). Prior to unloading hatches open and not go into full aeration gas" ( Dodatok.9).


4.2.14. The head of fumigation work again warns the captain that after fumigation vessel shall leave the port for two hours.

4.2.15. Prohibited night parking vehicles with cargo fumigation at the pier and the inner roads. '

4.2.16. In some cases, in agreement with the port authority and port SES permitted vessel fumigation of cargo on the inner roads under constant control for the presence of phosphine in the air on the cargo deck and superstructure in homes, conducted by fumzahonu loading port.

4.2.17. If technology is planned to hold the entire cycle 
znevarazhuvannya (fumigation and degassing) of cargo in the port, or pre- 
planned eidstoy in the port of loading vehicles with cargo fumigation, all 
necessary for this work should be done after consultation with the port SES 
designated berth by resettlement team ashore or with 
the team on board, but the constant control fumigation process experts 
fumigation squad. In this case, the responsibility for all orders for 
fumigation, disinfection of technology and safety is a specialist 
unit, which manages fumigation. '

4.2.18. Upon completion of the works executed "Fumigation Certificate" 
(Appendix 10), which is given to the master, a representative of the customer, 
the inspector border crossing on plant quarantine clearance for 
phytosanitary certificate, a copy of this document remains with the 
fumigation squad.

4.3. Tech transit fumigation

4.3.1. In transit fumigation State Inspectorate for Plant Quarantine signs 
contract enforcement technology disinfecting the passage and work safety on board in domestic or foreign ports upload one

the companies masses legal right (license) to carry out these works.

4.3.2. During the flight crew nakazuyetsya during the first three days 
with an interval of 8 hours, and then - once a day - to measure the presence of phosphine in the 
breathing zone of workers, residential and office space for the superstructure of the vessel 
using a hand analyzer and indicator tubes. The signal to determine the 
"gassed" air phosphine with the appearance of its smell. Results phosphine measurements 
are entered in the logbook.

4.3.3. If you find gas fumigation should immediately bring the 
people of this area to put on a gas mask, gas escape detect and eliminate it by making 
additional sealing. Then it is necessary to make measurements phosphine and 
ensure no fumigant in tsisy area or room.

4.3.4. Implementation of the crew members on deck or in the office 
premises aircraft is permitted at safe concentrations of phosphine during 
working hours (COD) of 0.1 ppm or 0.14 mg / m \

4.3.5. Stay people in office and residential premises vehicles 
permitted in the absence of specific fumigant odor (smell of garlic or 
karbyda) and in testimony breathalyzer phosphine concentration not exceeding 0.01 
ppm or 0,014 mg / m \

4.3.6. In transit fumigation is prohibited depressurization holds, opening vitrozoley, ventilation ducts, manhole to the end of the exposure time in the documents and the precautionary label on hold and lazah.

4.3.7. Where necessary to carry out emergency work in the tight hold high presence of pesticides, the entrance of the crew is allowed only in isolating breathing apparatus.

4.4. Degassing fumigation of cargo in flight

4.4.1. After the expiration of the exposure time (but not less than 48 hours before arrival at the port of discharge) should open vent head vitrozoley holds for the implementation of the degassing vessel on the go. Degassing is best done when airborne wind direction.

4.4.2. Before opening the vessel vent heads, and with good

weather - covers and holds - should zadrayity windows, doors homes superstructure and decks remove from people who do not work on decontamination.

4.4.3. Opening vitrozoley and holds lids should be done gradually, 
starting with holds, located on pidvitrenoyi side and move upwind.

4.4.5. When drainage work on the cargo deck and holds the lids should be carried out in gas-masks to the "nakedness" (gas mask lying on neck or nearby), and if you sense phosphine must wear protective equipment and determine its concentration.

"4.4 6. descent prohibited in the cargo hold people without their prior ventilating, determining the presence of oxygen and concentrations of phosphine.

4.5. Events unload cargo fumigation

4.5.1. On arrival at the port of discharge opens with the crew included ventilation hood holds and hatches manhole.Thus windows and doors homes vessels must be zadrayeni and work carried out in gas masks.

April 5 2. After 1:00 degassing vent system is switched off, output fumizlyvy (if they use) and is measuring concentrations above the grain fumigant. This work is done by specialists fumigation squad Derzhinspektsy on plant quarantine in the ports of Ukraine on the analysis of documents obtained from the ship's captain.

4.5.3. In the case where the concentration of phosphine in nadzernovomu stands at over 0.1 mg / m \ natural ventilation continues to safe concentrations of the test gas hourly availability.

4.5.4. If you find concentrations of phosphine in nadzernovomu space holds all below 0.1 mg / m 'and acceptable levels of fumigant presence of deep cargo specialist fumzahonu representative and give telefonohramu SES port dispatcher port permit review and unloading cargo.

4.5.5. Review of cargo and selection of samples is carried out entirely in open vessels and lazovyh hatches.

4.5.6. During unloading specialist fumzahonu periodically monitors the concentration of phosphine in the air of the working area, and if it exceeds COD, unloading stops and conducted additional degassing.

4.5.7. It is forbidden to go down in the holds of cargo unloaded in part without prior inspection of air in it for the presence of oxygen and phosphine and without permission Specialists fumzahonu poohovoyi and SES. Peoevioka carried on cargo

deck vehicles through tube probes lowered into the hold to the grain surface.

..4.5.8. Working people in the hold of partially unloaded grain fumigation is assumed at a concentration of phosphine in nadzernovomu space no more than 0,1 mg / m, the presence of oxygen at least 18% and presence of gas masks in the "nudity".

4.5.9. When performing work on cleaning the holds after unloading 
grain fumigation does not interrupt dynamic control for the presence of phosphine in the 
breathing zone of workers in the holds.

4.5.10. All indications of admission to the works, the descent into the hold, 
holds the cleaning should be recorded in a special journal "Measurements and 
works professional fumigation squad. " This log indicates who 
to whom and when ordered with indicating the start and completion of work in 
hazardous areas.


5 1. Processing grain the phosphine preparation are dangerous to fire on as accompanied by explosive gas phosphine. In this regard, it is necessary to monitor the unconditional fulfillment of technologies administration to the phosphine in the grain.

5.2. When you hit the drip-liquid water directly to the drug process 
decomposition and release of phosphine drugs significantly amplified with the release 
of a large amount of heat may cause spontaneous ignition of phosphine and create 
an explosive situation. These conditions may contribute to the formation Diphosphane - 
fuel gas, which can spontaneously in air.

5.3. When performing work on the phosphine preparation must 
follow requirements to ensure pozharo-explosion. - ->

5.3.1. It is forbidden to process the phosphine preparation of grain that has a humidity below 15%. When humidity below 15% decomposed phosphines aluminum and magnesium is slowed because the ports and unloading vehicles may come with the drug that is not decomposed.

5.3.2 Avoid direct contact the phosphine preparation with water or any other liquid in the first two days after the injection of grain (in case of contact to take action on drainage).

5.3.3. Do not use during the execution of the works

praparatamy the phosphine open sources of fire (hold operated welding work, light matches, smoke, etc.) and to carry out repairs at a distance closer than 5 m from fumihusmyh holds.

5.3.4. All work on the phosphine preparation and remnants of 
decomposition should be spent outdoors. In case of 
spontaneous combustion or ignition residue decomposition drugs should take 
measures to extinguish the fire. Work to extinguish the fire in cargo and private 
homes in the conduct of insulating breathing apparatus compressed air 
(which on board along with spare cylinders of compressed air should 
be no less than three pieces), fire suppression on open decks - in panoramic 
gas-masked with a protective element a filter against phosphine and carbon monoxide.

5.3.5. For fire prepartov phosphine used vohnehasyachi powder extinguishers OP-5 and so on., And handy tools: sand, soda, chalk, talc, graphite.

5.3.6. Never use water to extinguish and foam extinguishers.


6.1. In the case of combining work with disinfection and painting (koloratsiyi) fumigation of grain must perform a series of measures aimed at preventing the impact of an aqueous solution of phosphine tablets to paint, to comply with the "purity" of the process of fumigation and prevent ignition and explosion of hydrogen phosphide in the holds of the ship in the way transmission, as well as cases of acute and chronic poisoning phosphine members fumzahonu, port and dock crew members.

6.2. Painting (koloratsiya) grains must be made food dyes certified by Ministry of Health of Ukraine, and technology koloratsiyi should be agreed with the authorities on water transport Derzhsannahlyada Ukraine.


6.3. Koloratsiyu grain should spend most experienced professionals fumigation squad with experience of fumigation of grain and grain koloratsiyi devices. .

6.4. In conducting koloratsiyi must strictly follow the uniform flow solution paints not exceed the rates of consumption of it, not to create sources of high humidity.

7. Personal protection respiratory

Phosphine render toxic influence popadayuchy in the body through the breath. The interaction of gaseous phosphine with skin hazard does not.

Consequently, to protect against the harmful effect of phosphine used only 
personal respiratory protection (ZIZOP) - masks that

filtered, and isolating respiratory devices.

7.1. Filter masks

7.1.1.    The use of masks, filtering, is possible only in an atmosphere 
containing at least 18 volume percent free oxygen and not more than 0.5 volume 
percent of harmful substances.

7.1.2. It is prohibited to use masks that filter, in a possible lack of free oxygen in the air (below 18%), such as tanks, wells, kofferdamah and second insulated homes this type

7.1.3. The structure includes face mask and filter box with bellows. Depending on the design - with small size and weight of the filter box - it is fixed directly on the front side, in which case no corrugated tube

7.1.4. In the domestic production of gas masks for protection against phosphine 
used filter box brand E (black boxes) and BKF 
(protective green box). Boxes with a white vertical stripe 
supplied azrozolnyim filter that provides protection against fumigant in the presence of 
dust, smoke and fog. Time of protective action of phosphine at a concentration phosphide 
hydrogen 10 000 mg / m is:

-for boxes brand E - 360 minutes (with filter azrozolnyim - 120 minutes) - Boxes to mark BKF - 110 minutes.

At lower concentrations, duration of protective action of boxes increases.

7.1.5. If the concentration of hydrogen phosphide COD does not exceed 50 '(5 
mg / m), it can be used to protect protyhazni M boxes designed to 
protect against carbon monoxide in the presence of pollutants, including 
hydrogen phosphide.

7.1.6. In practice, well established, such as masks company

"Draeger" (Germany) marks Rapohata Youa CA (code 27 420 K), with panoramic

gas mask to which the box is screwed directly mark Ohatseh Kezr.Riyiyieh 620 81 A2V2-RH. These masks without size, lightweight and have a gas mask with panoramic

glass for larger view space.

7.1.7. To keep his mask protective properties box should be protected from shocks. Mauled and killed boxes (with shaking are pouring contents) should be replaced. Each box must be supplied by a passport, which recorded the duration of its use.

7.1.8. In domestic gas masks used helmet-mask according to GOST 12.4.166-85 five sizes: from 0 to 4. To mask well protected bodies of breath, you need to choose the right size helmet mask. For size determination are two measures:


- The length of the circumference of the head that is on the chin, cheeks, over the highest point crown;

- Length poluokruzhnosti that runs from ear to ear on the superciliary arches.

The figures consist, in the amount of up to 93 cm. Of facial - 0 size

from 93 to 95 cm in size,

from 95 to 99 cm 2 in size,

from 99 to 103 cm 3 in size,

More than 4 103 cm size.

7.1.9. Among foreign-made masks most widely used gas mask German production of the "Ryshha", "Rapohata Ioua", "Rapohata IChoua Ziapsiahi" and others. These gas-masks produced dimensionless and convenient system with individual adjustment by means of belts.

7.1.10. To check for leaks assembled mask should be put on the face gas mask, close the hole in the bottom of the box with his hand and try to make 3-4 deep breaths. If not, then the mask is assembled correctly and tightly. If the air you breathe passes, use masks can not.

7.2. Isolating respiratory devices

7.2.1. With a lack of free oxygen in the air (oxygen COD -18 vol.%) And

when the content of toxic substances in the atmosphere of the unknown or the concentration of toxic

vapors and gases so high (over 0.5%), which are difficult to apprehend by

filtering applied insulating hoses Breathing devices like "RV-2", which

ensure receipt of the respiratory system clean air, free from *

harmful substances.

7.2.2. In addition to the courts is isolating respiratory devices - devices

compressed air type ASV-2. On some systems Bulk carriers are charging cylinders of compressed air breathing apparatus to DIA-2.

7.2.3. As one of the most successful compressed air breathing apparatus foreign company worth recommending devices such as "PA-94" company "Draeger" (code 3339959) with the possibility of replacement spare cylinders on-site accident.

7.2.4. Use insulating breathing apparatus compressed air possible for those crew members that have received special training in accordance with the operating instructions of these devices.


8.1. Procedure security control when receiving import fumigation of cargo on ships of sea and river fleets

8.1.1. Information about the expected arrival of the ship fumigation of imported goods should arrive simultaneously for fumzahoniv Derzhkarantyna plants and sanitary and quarantine departments (SCR) port SES at least 3 days and again to 1 day before arrival of the ship at the port of discharge.

8.1.2. Upon arrival fumigation of cargo ship port SES employees working in admissions, in addition to basic health and quarantine issues and resolve issues related to the safety committee members and a reduced risk of acute poisoning fumigants (phosphine), and they, along with a representative of the State Inspectorate on plant quarantine should. Get information on the ship's captain of the cargo name, type and characteristic fumigant, time of fumigation and its duration, time and duration of drainage in terms of (proposed Regulations and the actual time). ' Mark the beginning of the data and the type of decontamination work ^ (natural degassing by opening hatches, forced, etc.), and the results of field measurements of control in flight fumigant concentrations in air through the records in the logbook, you should also notice as the type of analyzer, to using the crew. Mark cases of complaints on the overall condition of the crew in connection with the carriage of cargo fumigation and degassing of cargo in flight, complaints to the appearance of specific odor (phosphine) in residential and office facilities, vehicles in transit fumigation of cargo. Identify zveratyemost using with symptoms of poisoning 
by pesticides in flight availability outpatient records in log and determine 
zvertayemost medical care in foreign ports. Check availability and provision of personal protective equipment 
and respiratory frequency of their use in flight during transportation 
of cargo fumigation.                                                                                               ,

8 1.2.6. Check User crew safety during transport fumigation of cargo and the Order of the captain of the transport of dangerous cargo fumigation.

8.1.3. Prior doctor Commission (d. Doctor) SCR using a hand held gas analyzer or electronic control jobs Commission on cargo deck, superstructure and holds in the presence of fumigant, focusing tank room, MEI Housing Dwelling superstructure (PIC r.z phosphine in the workplace - 0.1 mg / m '. COD phosphine in the air of residential dwellings superstructure, 0.01 mg / m)

8.1.4. In the absence of steam and gas fumigant phosphine or when it detects a permissible limits hygiene physician (d. Doctor) SCR gives permission to work


8.1.5. The doctor (paramedic) SCR selectively controls the presence of phosphine in the air cargo on deck in the hold and nadzernovom space at a height of 0.5 - 1.0 m., Ie, workplace experts fumzahoniv State Grain Revision and Derzhkarantynu, which will be otbir grain samples for analysis .

8.1.6. Specialist fumzahonu determines the effectiveness of decontamination fumigation of cargo measuring the residual amounts of gaseous pesticide in nadzernovomu space, deep in the grain, legumes and agricultural goods, disinfected in flight. In case of presence of phosphine in the control points in quantities exceeding the permissible norms employee fumzahona with doctor .. (pom.likarya) SCR port SES decide pro'zaboronu works on a cargo fumigation, and captain of the ship and the port dispatcher give a written order on additional degassing cargo and cargo spaces, as reported to management and the department of toxicology dangerous cargo port SES. '

8.1.7. With positive results regarding the efficiency degassing events specialist fumzahona with the doctor (pom.likarya) SCR give permission for further work on cargo fumigation. This employee also reported in SCR department (lab) toxicology dangerous goods of their SES

for-sanitary control fumigation unloading cargo in port

at berth in the internal or external roads.

8.1.8. The doctor (paramedic) SCR during inspection after the intended 
fumzahonom repeated degassing can not give permission to conduct unloading without fumigation service professional opinion of completion

drainage and lack of cargo fumigant in nadzernovomu space.

8.1.9. When setting the ship to berth or anchorage for subsequent 
discharge representative of a professional application orders for SES port 
of sanitary hihienichnoho control to ensure the safety of people 
involved in unloading of dangerous goods.

8.2. Procedure for sanitary control in fumigation of grain export in ships and barges

8.2.1. Before the completion of loading grain, grain products or 
agricultural goods company representative makes a request to fumigation 
squad port and a port for SES fumigation of cargo and sanitary 
safety fumigation court papers. The specialists fumigation 
services regardless of representative applications must be received in the port of SES 
consent to fumigation activities using phosphine. Without the consent of the 
authorities of Derzhsannahlyada fumihatsionnyih work is prohibited.

8.2.2. Before fumigation doctor checks SES experts fumzahona willingness to work with the disinfection of grain or agricultural goods within their jurisdiction

8.2.3. Doctor with SES representative fumzahonu checks to ensure crews domestic sudnen period fumigation of cargo transportation necessary documents, acts and regulations, as well as issuing means gas measurements and hazozahystu intended to ensure the safety of the crew, their storage life and health under normal conditions and emergency situation (netehnolohichna escape, release clouds of gas fumigation etc.).

8.2.4. Conducts random control measurements degree gassed 
phosphine air fumzahona jobs in the holds and cargo deck, and, 
in the case of disinfection cycle full of cargo in ports of Ukraine.

8.2.5. Simultaneously, medical and sanitary checks readiness Ukrainian ships 
and their crews to transport cargo and fumigation Act is appropriate 
forms (Annex 11).

9.   Method of determination of phosphine in the air

9.1. To determine the concentration of phosphine in the air using domestic or foreign agents gazoanaliza with certification Standard Ukraine as instruments measuring instruments:

a) Manual aspirator type "AM-5" (Ukraine) - GOST 12.1.014-84;

b) Manual detectors multyhazdetektor "Draeger" (Germany) - 
GOST Ukraine imports M 1 / 1- 101-97;

c) indicator tube for determining phosphine "Draeger" (Germany) - 
GOST Ukraine IIA M 1 / 1-100-97;

d) e phosphine gas analyzers PAC III- RNZ "Draeger" (Germany) - 
Ukraine GOST MI -M 1/1 - 93-97;

These tubes provide evidence yndykatorni concentration of phosphine in volume units - parts per million (ppm ml / MR) analyzer PAC III -RNZ - both in ppm and mg / cubic.

To translate the obtained values ​​of volume in unit weight (mg / cubic), they must be multiplied by a factor equal to 1.4 phosphine and phosphine Given the density under normal conditions:

1 ml / m = 1 ppm = 1.4 mg / m.

Adopted in our country COD phosphine in the air of the working area - 0.1 mg / cubic -vidpovidaye volume concentration of 0.07 ml / MR (ppm). COD for air vehicles and premises - 0.01 mg / cubic.

9.1. Determination of phosphine in the air using indicator tubes "Draeger"

The method has received the greatest application in marine conditions due to ease of use, high reliability, low readings depending on changes in environmental conditions (temperature, humidity, presence of impurities in the air).

9.1.1. Indicator tubes are hermetically sealed glass tube length of about 120 mm, 8 mm in diameter, filled with the indicator reagent (Fig. I):

Zero division (the origin)

- 0.1 The scale of measurement of concentration 
and Direction of movement


The formula due to gas (RNZ-phosphine) RNZ

Unit concentrations

PP 1

n = number of turns (compression) suction that fit on the scale


limits of concentration measurement


Fig. 2. View breathalyzer company "Draeger" to determine phosphine

In conjunction with phosphine contained in the sample air indicator layer is painted in a dark color. The length of the darkened layer corresponds to the number of phosphine, which passed through the tube. Thus, when a strictly defined volume air samples stained layer length uniquely determined by the concentration of phosphine in the study sample.

9.1.2. Due to the fact that the concentration of phosphine is the ratio of its quantity in this, the volume of air to the size of the volume, for the proper performance measurement should strictly follow the sample size that prokachuvayetsya. You must use only hand multyhazdetektory who are certified in Ukraine (eg plant "Respirator" company "Draeger" "spetsyfyyisatsiynym with a working volume of 100 SMZ) and strictly observe prokachuvan numbers that correspond to a given measurement limits.

9.1.3. At a constant concentration of phosphine in a controlled air sample size zchytuyemoho indications (length colored reagent layer) increases in proportion prokachuvan. Because the indicator tube

allow you to make multiple measurements in addition to the main band. Primary

range printed on the tube body (one or two scales depending on the brand

tubes), additional ranges of multiple primary.

The value of basic and additional ranges specified in the various tubes

Table 2:

Table 2




Tube type

Poznachennya of


Tensile measurements and the corresponding number prokachuvan

The main range

Additional range

Number prokachuvan

Limit of Measurement

Number prokachuvan

A limit of measurement


0.1 / a

n = 10


0. 1-4.0 ppm




0.01 / a

n = 10


0. 1-1.0 ppm


0.01-0.3 ppm

The study sample air is pumped through the breathalyzer using multyhazdetektora company "Draeger" with rubber siphon, which swept volume - 100 SMZ. If studied air hold out through the hose, the aspirator pre absorb 2-3 times the volume of air contained in these tubes, and then make a measurement using the indicator tube.

9.2. Procedure for measurement

9.2 1. Perform an operational check suction tightness degree by short-term exposure compressed all the way with suction inserted into the slot nevidchinenoyu (with sealed ends) breathalyzer. Aspirator is considered tight if for 5 minutes compression ratio siphon (rubber bulb) visually unchanged.

9.2.2. Break off both ends of the breathalyzer using 
discoverer tubes, which eliminates the use Filter- breach of 
pads and gear indicator reagent, which is in the tube.

9.2.3. Gently but firmly inserted into the rubber hole multyhazdetektora 
breathalyzer on the arrow printed on the tube down to the device.

9.2.4. Compress siphon multyhazdyetektora to stop.

9.2.5. Release multyhazdetektor to complete its expansion, depending on the particular tube takes 25-30 seconds.Full expansion is determined by the tension of the chain.

9.2.6. The total number of moves (compression) should meet the required limits of measurements that can be detected after the first moves.

9.2.6. Evaluate the results. For any measuring range

result in ppm (ml / MR) can be defined by the formula,

K = C --------,


where D - phosphine concentration, ppm (ml / MR);

C - zchytuyeme value retention phosphine in the air;

P - required moves (compression) zaznachenaya on the indicator tube (on the scale on which the measurement was made);

N - number of moves performed (compression). National Make obtained values ​​in mg / cubic by multiplying by a factor equal to 1.4.

9.3. Examples of calculation

9.3.1. Pa scale breathalyzer "Draeger" 0. And / but with a scale of 0.1 - 4.0 ppm 
at 10-fold compression layer aspirator indicator to assess ofarbyvsya 0.8 (between 
0.5 and 1.0 distributions). Because the number of moves made ​​to fit your 
scale (n = v0), the actual concentration of phosphine is 0.8 ppm (1,1mh / m3).

9.3.2. On the scale breathalyzer "Draeger" 0. And / but at 30-fold compression

aspirator indicator layer ofarbyvsya to assess 1.5. The real concentration

phosphine in this case determined from the formula:

K = 1.5 -------- = 0.5 ppm (0.7 mg / cubic meter).


9.3.3. Indicator tubes containing toxic substances, so do not 
suppose hit indicator reagent on the skin breathalyzer, 
which were in use, should not fall into the hands of unauthorized persons and children.

9.3.4. Indicator tubes should be kept in a dark place at a temperature 
of 25 degrees. S.

9.4. Determination of phosphine gas analyzer in the air "PAC III-PH3»


9.4.1. The gas analyzer "PAC III-PH3» is a modern electronic gas metering device 
(Fig. 3) for determining phosphine in the air, with digital display on Plasma display 
has two alarm thresholds increase the level of dangerous concentrations of phosphine as 
warning. The device is equipped with memory for 800 entries concentrations of gas from 
dropping data to a computer.

9.4.2. Managed by the device with the help of a simple system with three buttons. Enabling - 
button 1, there are large numbers of phosphine concentration and unit of measurement in these 
figures. At night or in neosevitlenyh rooms are light display.

9.4.3. After the measuring device can be connected to a portable or stationary 
computer to reset and subsequent printout results.

9.4.4. Switching off the device made by pressing the buttons 2 and 3.



10. IMPORTANT personal and public safety

10.1. According to the Law of Ukraine "On Pesticides and Agrochemicals" 
transport, storage and use of pesticides should be conducted in accordance 
with the state sanitary rules "Transportation, storage and use of 
pesticides in the economy "(K .: Ukraine Ministry of Health 1998)," Regulations on 
safety during storage , transportation and application of pesticides in 
agriculture "(M .: Ahropromizdat - 1985). Responsibility for compliance with 
these rules are individuals who apply pesticides and agrochemicals.

10.2. Prior to the work of disinfection cargo on sea and river 
vessels permitted to persons at least 18 years that have passed medical examination and received positive medical opinion, specially trained to work with 
chemicals, which are well aware of their properties, are able to use 
protective equipment and do first aid Fumigants for poisoning.

10.3. Prohibited access to works of fumigants persons with contraindications to perform work of disinfection cargo on ships and unable to work for a long time in a gas mask on the conclusion of a doctor.

10.4. Every employee that allowed independent of fumigation work should have on hand witness to host these works, issued by the Chief State Inspection for Plant Quarantine of Ukraine.

10.5. When working on the cargo deck and in the holds on a fumigant (from the date of departure of the ship dock) One representative from experts fumigation squad periodically monitors to the zone fumigation did not get involved in the fumigation is not a person.

10.6. Director of decontamination work load using 
a gas analyzer and indicator tubes (or Electronic gas measurements) 
conducts systematic monitoring of the absence of phosphine (or its presence in the 
acceptable range) in the breathing zone of workers in the case of concentration 
otrutohimikate a 0.1 mg / cubic immediately take measures to ensure the safety 
of people.

10.7. Monitoring the performance measures of personal and public safety and providing 
if necessary first aid to persons on board, 
relies on the doctor's sanitary-epidemiological and medical 
institutions port.

10.8. At the time of fumigation operations manager for disinfection communicates with Sanitary and Epidemiological and health centers port.

10.9. Manager works with fumigation of cargo on board instructs about the rules 
of safety, first aid measures, checks and 313 ZIZOP each 
employee group.

10.10. Employees with health complaints or previous briefing on safety technics to work with fumigation is not allowed.

10.11. At the end of phosphine with drugs should take a shower, change clothes and underwear. From clothing dust is removed, then it thoroughly ventilated air.

10.12. Eating and Smoking permitted in designated areas on board and only after washing your hands.

10.13. Works with fumigation (administration to phosphine) can be carried out around the clock, while ensuring adequate coverage port holds of the ship and the pier (at least 50 lux).

10.14. Total working hours in jobs associated with the phosphine must not exceed 4 hours. In the days of the fumigant from fosfidnymy squad employees get free spetsharchuvannya to established norms.

10.15. In some cases, fumigation unit, sanitary and epidemiological station and the corresponding service port required to take additional measures for security, under specific conditions disinfecting vehicles, especially during emergency situations.


11. first medical and pharmaceutical AID

Signs manifestation of toxic effects of gaseous phosphine or drugs based on it is characterized by the number of its revenues in the body over time and the impact of inhalation (breathing), oral (prokovtannya) and cutaneous way revenues. The main symptoms of acute poisoning are headache, dizziness, tinnitus, cough, nausea, choking, vomiting, weakness, lethargy.

11.1. Phosphine poisoning by inhalation

Symptoms of poisoning appear in the first 2-4 hours and are characterized by severe lung lesion - a strong cough, headache, dizziness, lethargy, drowsiness, feeling of pressure in the chest, stupor.

First medical to tance - to bring the victim from the danger zone, spenolyah remove and place in a warm, it is well ventilated room. Giving breathe 100% humidified oxygen, drink strong tea or black coffee. Foot impose heaters. Call the doctor.

If you do not do first aid, then the heavy defeat lungs can develop bronchitis, pneumonia or pulmonary edema.

Medical assistance                  appoint lung (antibiotics,

sulfanylamydni drugs) and dyuretychni vehicles (1.0 ml / pc 20% r-ra caffeine, 2.0 ml of 20% camphor oil, 2.0 kordiamin p / to, in / in 20.0 ml glucose of 300 mg of ascorbic acid ). Subscribe to heart, kidney and liver activity.

When pulmonary edema - enter 5-10 mg diazepam overnight, then the same dose every 15 minutes, but no more than 30 mg Provide good supportive symptomatic treatment

You must provide close medical monitoring of patients during the first 72 hours of treatment.

11.2. Phosphine poisoning by ingestion in the stomach

When a phosphine in the stomach lesions showing signs of cardiovascular and gastrointestinal renal fact that it is difficult to distinguish the clinical picture of food poisoning (food poisoning).

After 5 minutes of Yu-prokovtannya drug indicated severe pain in ipihastralniy stomach, vomiting, dry mouth, numbness of limbs, the appearance of breathlessness, weakness.

First aid - induce vomiting. Giving inside 1% pp

copper sulfate (1 g per 100 g of water) every 5 minutes a teaspoon or 0.1%

solution of potassium permanganate (1 g per liter) 1 tbsp. spoon every 15 minutes.

-and forbidden to give the patient milk, eggs, vegetable oils and fats, animal fats.

Call the doctor.

If you do not do first aid, it comes at a heavy defeat cardiovascular insufficiency, psychogenic disorders, drowsiness, lethargy, delirium. Perhaps the development of pulmonary edema.

Medical assistance - gastric lavage 0.1% solution of copper sulphate or 0.04% solution of potassium permanganate. The most effective is the introduction dybutamina of 6 mg per 1 kg in the first minute (blood pressure under control !!!).

Dates saline laxative (1 tbsp. Spoonful of magnesium sulfate in a glass of water)

assign mucous broths.

Further - treatment of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease psychogenic disorders. Careful medical supervision in the early 1 th . hours of admission.

11.3. Defeat phosphine in contact with skin

At hit phosphine drug to the skin should wash generously CC area with warm soapy water or a weak solution of baking soda.

In the absence of therapeutic drugs and medicines poterpilyn recommended input vnutryshlunkovo ​​100-150 g of activated carbon and 2-3


Specific antidotes to treat poisoning there. The phosphine property has accumulates